中國華文教育網
中國的民族Chinese Ethnic Groups
2010年04月20日 16:16



  中國是一個統一的多民族國家,中華民族是中國各民族的總稱。中國有56個民族,其中漢族人口約占全國總人口的91.59%,其余為55個少數民族。

  在全國的少數民族中,壯族、回族、維吾爾族、彝族、苗族、滿族、藏族、蒙古族、土家族、布依族、朝鮮族、侗族、瑤族、白族、哈尼族、哈薩克族、傣族和黎族的人口超過了100萬;僳族、田族、拉祜族、佤族、水族、東鄉族、納西族、土族、柯爾克孜族、羌族、達斡爾族、景頗族、佬族、錫伯族、仡佬族、高山族的人口超過了10萬;撒拉族、布朗族、毛南族、塔吉克族、普米族、怒族、阿昌族、鄂溫克族、基諾族、德昂族、烏孜別克族、京族、裕固族、保安族、俄羅斯族的人口在1萬以上;門巴族、獨龍族、鄂倫春族、塔塔爾族、珞巴族、赫哲族人口不足1萬。

  中國的少數民族人數少,分布區域廣,居住相對集中。廣西、內蒙古、新疆、西藏、寧夏5個民族自治區分別是壯、蒙古、維吾爾、藏、回幾個較大的少數民族集中居住的地區。云南、青海、貴州、甘肅、四川等省份也有大量少數民族聚居。其中云南省內就有20多個少數民族,是中國少數民族聚居最集中的省份。除此以外,吉林省有朝鮮族聚居區,湖南湘西有土家族和苗族聚居區,海南省有黎族和苗族聚居區,臺灣省有高山族聚居區等等。很多少數民族居住在中國的邊疆地區,那里多是山區、高原、森林和草原,自然資源豐富。

  在長期的歷史發展過程中,少數民族大都形成了自己特有的風俗習慣和宗教信仰,除了回族、滿族一般使用漢語外,其它少數民族都有自己的語言,有的還有自己的文字。中國的少數民族大都能歌善舞,具有自己民族優秀的文化藝術傳統、獨特的民族樂器、優美的民族歌舞、豐富多彩的神話、詩歌和源遠流長的歷史傳說。在少數民族中,還涌現了一大批科學家,他們為科學技術的進步作出了貢獻。

  Chinese Ethnic Groups

  China has 56 ethnic groups, among which the Han ethnic group accounts for 91.59% of the total population, with the remainder broken up into 55 ethnic minorities.

      Among them, the population of the Zhuang, Hui, Uygur, Yi, Miao, Manchu, Tibetan, Mongolian, Tujia, Bouyei, Korean, Dong, Yao, Bai, Hani, Kazakh, Dai and Li nationalities is more than a million; that of the Lisu, She, Lahu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Naxi, Tu, Kyrgyz, Qiang, Daur, Jingpo, Mulam, Xibe, Gelao, and Gaoshan nationalities exceeds 100,000; that of the Salar, Blang, Maonan, Tajik, Primi, Nu, Achang, Ewenki, Jino, De'ang, Uzbek, Jing, Yugur, Bao'an, and Russian nationalities is over 10,000; and that of the Monba, Drung, Oroqen, Tatar, Lhoba, and Hezhen nationalities is less than 10,000.

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      China's ethnic minorities are scattered over a vast area, but live in relatively compact communities. The five national autonomous regions of Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Ningxia are compact communities inhabited by five comparably populous minority groups ?Zhuang, Mongolian, Uygur, Tibetan, and Hui respectively. And in Yunnan, Qinghai, Guizhou, Gansu, and Sichuan, there also live a great number of minority people. Yunnan Province is an area where minority groups are most concentrated with more than 20 represented. There is also a region in Jilin Province inhabited by the Korean people, one in the western part of Hunan Province, inhabited by the Tujia and Miao nationalities, one in Hainan Province inhabited by the Li and Miao nationalities, and one in Taiwan Province inhabited by the Gaoshan people. Many ethnic minorities live in China's frontier areas, which mostly comprise mountains, plateaus, forests and plains with rich natural resources.

      In the long process of historical development, most ethnic minorities have formed their own special traditions, customs and religious beliefs. Except for the Hui and Manchu, who use the Chinese language, other minority groups have their own spoken languages, and some even have written characters. Almost all the ethnic minorities of China are good at singing and dancing, and have their own splendid cultural and artistic traditions, unique national musical instruments, beautiful national songs and dances, rich and varied fairy tales and poems and historical legends of longstanding.

【來源:中國華文教育網】

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