中國華文教育網
謙虛禮讓 Modesty and Comity
2009年09月03日 09:13

  謙虛禮讓

  謙虛禮讓作為中華民族的傳統美德,主要包含以下內容:第一是正確地認識自己,能看到自己的不足,永不自滿;第二是發現別人的長處,寬容別人的缺點,尊重別人;第三是正確對待個人的利益,懂得謙讓,不居功,不爭名奪利。古人把謙虛與成功的關系凝縮成“滿招損,謙受益”這句話,告誡人們自滿會招來損害,謙虛能得到益處。

  春秋時期,有一次,孔子去拜訪老子。雖然老子的年齡比孔子大,學問比孔子淵博,但他還是親自駕車,趕到郊外去迎接孔子。這次見面,孔子虛心地向老子請教,老子耐心地一一解答。臨別時,老子說,有道德修養的人要樸實,不能驕傲、貪婪、心存妄想。這些話給孔子留下了極深的印象。孔子后來說的“三人行,必有我師”,意思就是:只要有幾個人在一起,其中就必定有值得我學習的老師。老子和孔子的言行對后人產生了很大影響。

  戰國時,趙國的藺(l?)相如因功被封為高官,大將軍廉頗居功不服,處處和他過不去。而藺相如毫不計較。有一次,藺相如和廉頗在路上相遇,廉頗故意擋道,藺相如就退到一邊,讓廉頗先過。藺相如手下的人認為廉頗無禮,很不服氣。藺相如對他們講,文臣武將之間應該謙恭禮讓,加強團結,這樣國家才能興旺。后來廉頗知道了這件事,覺得很羞愧,就到藺相如家請罪。藺相如也深為廉頗勇于改正錯誤的精神所感動,從此兩人同心協力治理趙國。

  漢代的孔融四歲時,有一天,父親買來一些梨讓大家吃。孔融挑了一個最小的。父親問他為甚么挑最小的,他說自己年紀小,應該吃最小的,大的讓給哥哥們吃。“孔融讓梨”的故事在中國家喻戶曉,家長們經常用這個故事教育孩子要學會謙讓。

  中華民族謙虛禮讓的美德代代相傳,至今仍然產生積極的作用。

  As traditional virtues of the Chinese nation, modesty and comity are mainly composed of the following elements: first, to know oneself accurately and see one's own limitations, and never become complacent; second, to detect others' strong points, tolerate others' weaknesses, and respect others; third, to correctly treat personal interests, give each other precedence, and not to claim credit oneself, or to scramble for fame and gain. Ancient men distilled the relationship between modesty and success into one sentence ——"omplacency spells loss, while modesty brings benefit."

  In the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC), Confucius once went to visit Lao Zi. Although Lao Zi was older and more knowledgeable, he drew a cart in person to welcome Confucius to his home. Confucius asked Lao Zi modestly for advice and Lao Zi explained various points patiently one by one. When they parted, Lao Zi said that a virtuous person should be sincere and honest, and not be proud and greedy or have vain hope. These words left a deep impression on Confucius. He later said, "if there are three men walking together, one of them is bound to be good enough to be my teacher."The words and deeds of Lao Zi and Confucius had great influence on later generations.

  In the Warring States Period (475-221 BC), Lin Xiangru of the State of Zhao was given a title of senior official for having rendered outstanding service to the state, but General Lian Po claimed the credit for the work, and always tried to embarrass him. Lin Xiangru never argued with him. Once, Lin Xiangru met the general in the street and the latter deliberately blocked the way. Lin Xiangru withdrew and let Lian Po go first. His subordinates were angry, considering Lian Po had behaved impolitely. But Lin Xiangru told them that officials and officers should be modest and polite, give each other precedence and strengthen unity, and in this way the country could prosper. Later Lian Po got to know this, and, feeling ashamed, he went to Lin Xiangru's house to apologize. Lin Xiangru was also deeply moved that the general was brave enough to correct his mistakes. From then on, the two acted in concert to manage the State of Zhao.

  When Kong Rong of the Han Dynasty (206 BC -220 AD) was four years old, one day his father bought some pears and Kong Rong chose the smallest one. His father asked him why; he said that he was the youngest and should eat the smallest and leave the bigger ones for his elder brothers. Every household in China knows the story of "Kong Rong yielding the bigger pears to his elder brothers" and parents often instruct their children through this story to learn comity.

【來源:中國華文教育網】

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